MS3474A20-41B_Datasheet PDF

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It's a matter of integrating more functionality,” Geday said. The markets are converging. If we don't handle the integration, someone else will.”

The task of the code morphing software is to distribute the instruction current of x86 applications over the individual instruction units of the Efficeon in a way that optimizes their use. The software dynamically optimizes processes in a four-level procedure.

We are no longer optimizing the entire software, as we did for Crusoe, but rather only where it is justified by the ratio of expense to results,” Russell explained. He declined to provide more details, saying only that code morphing represents our crown jewels.”

MS3474A20-41B_Datasheet PDF

Intensive use of software has allowed Transmeta designers to make do with only” 79 millions transistors, including an integrated North Bridge that occupies an area greater than Intel's entire processor Efficeon's small die surface is one reason to expect a high yields during chip manufacturing, which in turn could lower its price. Some industry watchers said Efficeon could eventually cost $100 per chip. Russell didn't elaborate.

The chip is being manufactured by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. using its 130-nm process, and is due to be delivered to the OEMs in the next few weeks. The next generation will roll off the assembly lines in the second half of 2004.

Transmeta has already signed a production contract with Fujitsu). These chips will be manufactured using 90-nm technology, thereby saving even more space, higher clock frequencies and greater computing power.

MS3474A20-41B_Datasheet PDF

We've looked at all 90-nm foundries worldwide, with the exception of Intel, of course”, says Russell. We decided to go with Fujitsu, not only because they have the fastest transistors, but also because they have a lot of experience in producing complex processors”.

Next year, Transmeta's LongRun power management software will also be revised. LongRun 2 will monitor leakage currents”, Russell said. Laboratory tests have succeeded in reducing these undesirable currents by a factor of 70.

MS3474A20-41B_Datasheet PDF

Past failures have made Transmeta more self-conscious. Unlike Crusoe, Efficeon is targeted at the embedded systems, thin clients and very small computers markets. It must also make its way into standard laptops, and drive mainstream desktop PCs with no fans and blade servers. That's an important difference,” Russell said. We can only do that if we're certain of its performance.”

–Christoph Hammerschmidt is editor-in-chief of EETimes.de.

Fairchild recently released another product called the FS6X1220RT controller specially designed for off-line DC-DC converters with minimal external components. This device is a current mode PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) controller combined with a high voltage power SenseFET (internal switching transistor capable of handling up to maximum of 8 amps peak current) in a single package. The PWM controller includes integrated fixed frequency oscillator (300 kHz), line UVLO, sleep on/off function, thermal shutdown protection, over-voltage protection, pulse-by-pulse current limit, and temperature compensated precise current sources for loop compensation. Compared with a discrete MOSFET and PWM controller solution, the FS6X1220RT can reduce total cost, component count, size and weight, while simultaneously increasing efficiency, productivity, and system reliability. It is well suited for DC to DC converter applications up to 30W of output power.

The following sections describe the power supply schematic (figure 3), with the exception of transformer magnetics.

Input Capacitance

In AC/DC supplies, input filter capacitors are used to reduce the ripple on the full wave rectified line voltage. In DC/DC converters they can be used to void off any transients that become present on the line, or even to maintain the input voltage when the main line voltage is fully interrupted. For example, if hold time (loss of input voltage) is required on the primary side, C1 could become hundreds or thousands of farads. In this case the 47uF capacitor is used to void off any transients on the Power over Ethernet input line.

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